메인메뉴 바로가기 본문으로 바로가기
홈 Introduction Education System Educational Administration

Educational Administration

Organization of the Educational Administration

A. Ministry of Education

The Ministry of Education is the government body responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies related to academic activities and public education. Under the education ideology of "Hongik Ingan," which envisions all Korean citizens developing into ideal citizens with enhanced self-sustaining capabilities to contribute to the democratic development of the nation and the welfare of mankind. The Ministry plans and coordinates educational policies, formulates policies that govern the primary, secondary and higher educational institutes, publishes and approves text-books, provides administrative and financial support for all levels of the school system, supports local education offices and national universities, operates the teacher training system and is responsible for overseeing lifelong education and developing human resource policies.

B. Local Education Offices

With the enactment of The Local Autonomy Law in 1991, educational autonomy at the local level was promoted with the implementation of new modes of operation. Accordingly, educational administration became decentralized and the Ministry of Education delegated much of its budget planning and major administrative decisions to local authorities. In response to the growing concerns regarding the diverse needs of local education and the skills required to administer such, district education offices, distinct from the general regional administration, have been established. These offices make decisions regarding education, art and science pertaining to each respective local area.
Local government consists of the municipal assembly in the legislative body as well as the regional government and superintendent of education in the enforcement agency. Superintendents of education are representatives of education/arts/sciences of the local governments.
Superintendents of education are elected through various ways including president's appointment, election by members of the board of education, indirect election by an electoral college, and in 2007, direct election by residents was first polled. Qualifications of candidates for superintendents of education include: a non-member of a party for the past one year with more than three years of experience in education or education administration. Superintendents are elected every four years through a local election. As of 2016, there are 17 Metropolitan and Provincial Offices of Education and 176 District Offices of Education. District Offices of Education are considered a local education administration office in charge of more than one Metropolitan and Provincial areas and districts in the education related work in the Metropolitan and Provincial area.

Educational Policy Advisory Councils

The Educational Policy Advisory Council is an advisory body affiliated with the Minister that gathers opinions from around the world to make decisions with regard to educational policies. This council is responsible for: 1) establishing fundamental policies related to education, 2) improving educational systems, and 3) acting as an advisory body for the Minister regarding educational issues, reviewing key educational reforms, and collecting opinions from the policy fields. Members of this council are appointed, who are commonly superintendents of education, presidents of universities, personnel from education organizations, and individuals from non-government organizations, who are highly educated. As of 2016, a total of 102 members are in the council. The term for members lasts one year yet they can serve for consecutive years.
The Educational Policy Advisory Council can organize a subcommittee in order to effectively manage work. Currently, there are seven subcommittees including Future Education Strategies Committee, School Reform Committee, University Reform Committee, Lifelong Education Committee, Local Education Financial Reform Committee, Safe Education Committee, and International Education Cooperation Committee. The council can open a public hearing, if necessary, to take note of public officials and specialists opinions, and which also acts as a medium to facilitate communications between the Ministry of Education and the fields.

Budget for Education

Funding for Korea"s education comprises those from the central government, local governments, and the independent resources of private schools. Reliance upon tuition payment from parents still remains high. The bulk of the assistance comes from the government or managed through tuition paid by the students, while contributions from donors, entrepreneurs or private organizations remain negligible.

The education budget of the central government is supported by funds from the nation"s taxes. The central government"s education budget provides funding for education offices which control primary and secondary school education, the operating funding of national universities, some support for private universities, and for educational administrative and research organizations. The budget for the Ministry of Education consists of the general fund, financial loan special fund, state-owned property special fund, special fund for the management of special taxes for rural areas, special fund for local education fund transfer management, and the special fund for organizational management. Education budgets of local governments comes primarily from subsidies disbursed by the central government.

The central government is obliged to bear the cost of remuneration for teachers in compulsory education and the annual grant for local education, which accounts for 13% of the internal tax revenue. The major source of financing for private education is the entrance and tuition fees. The government enacted a law exempting private schools from taxes for the purpose of acquisition and sale of properties and provides subsidies to cover the shortage in remuneration and operating costs. Loans are provided to help private schools with expansion and renovation of facilities. The government"s coverage for research grants, student activities, scholarships and annuities is increasing rapidly.

Comparison of the Education Budget with other Budgets, 2004 (General Account)

(Unit: 100 million won)

Primary School
Classification Budget for 2004 Ratio Remarks

General Administration

113,728

6.1%

 

National Defense

197,904

10.6%

 

Social Development

160,246

8.6%

 

Education

220,463

11.9%

 

Economic Development

294,766

15.8%

 

Subsidiary Grants to Local Governments

141,596

7.6%

 

Debt Repayment

18,194

1.0%

 

Others

3,841

0.2%

 

Reserve Fund

32,822

1.8%

 

Special Fund

676,668

36.4%

 

Total

1,860,228

100%

 

Ministry of Education Expenditures, 2004

(Unit: 100 million won)

Primary School
MOE
Head Office
Educational
Organizations
Educational
Support Institutions
Transfer to
Local Education
Hospital
Administration
Special
Account
Total

1,969,532

1,794,733

27,112

18,168,972

70,390

4,353,349

26,384,088

7.4%

6.8%

0.1%

68.9%

0.3%

16.5%

100.0%